The plant operated in the 1950s and 1960s. In March 2005, the EPA promulgated a regulation[129] that added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and instituted a national cap and trade system. [25], Mercury is an extremely rare element in Earth's crust, having an average crustal abundance by mass of only 0.08 parts per million (ppm). Unlike organocadmium and organozinc compounds, organomercury compounds do not react with water. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume. The following methods try to transform the planets into something useful for settlers that will move to their satellites. [126], In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination. Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. [120] Acute exposure to mercury vapor has been shown to result in profound central nervous system effects, including psychotic reactions characterized by delirium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. [5], Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury. The richest mercury ores contain up to 2.5% mercury by mass, and even the leanest concentrated deposits are at least 0.1% mercury (12,000 times average crustal abundance). Credit: NASA Coined by the science fiction writer, James Blish, this is another term used to describe the 4 outermost planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. When Mercury’s dynamo began to weaken, the solar winds began to blow its atmosphere into space. It has a large metallic core, made of solid or liquid iron. In our solar system, for example, there are 8 planets: Mercury is the closest to sun and hot as hell. Once fully cooled, the dense metallic core was left in a weak but permanent magnet state. Mercury(II) oxide, the main oxide of mercury, arises when the metal is exposed to air for long periods at elevated temperatures. Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. If heated, it is a colorless, odorless gas. [43] They arise by a process known as biomethylation. Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of little industrial value in the western world. Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds. mercury cadmium telluride and mercury zinc telluride being semiconductors useful as infrared detector materials.[42]. You eventually start to notice that the atmosphere has become thick enough that you can swim through it. Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals.[68]. I was investigating exoplanet data and noticed that some gas giants near stars show signs of evaporating due to being too close to the star. Best known is mercury(II) chloride, an easily sublimating white solid. [5] The latter sometimes occurs naturally as metacinnabar. In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since 2003. The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions. Mercury, like other planets ... rocky worlds should be more common than the more massive gas giants. For example, in 1976 Santa Clara County, California purchased the historic Almaden Quicksilver Mine and created a county park on the site, after conducting extensive safety and environmental analysis of the property. [16], In China and Tibet, mercury use was thought to prolong life, heal fractures, and maintain generally good health, although it is now known that exposure to mercury vapor leads to serious adverse health effects. At room temperature, exposed elemental mercury can evaporate to become an invisible, odorless toxic vapor. States were given until November 2006 to impose stricter controls, but after a legal challenge from several states, the regulations were struck down by a federal appeals court on 8 February 2008. If scientists would like to study the core of a gas giant roughly the size of Neptune or Uranus, they need look no further than Mercury. There are four gas giants in our Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. [138] ", "Mercury and the environment — Basic facts", "Liquid mercury found under Mexican pyramid could lead to king's tomb", "Metacinnabar: Mineral information, data and localities", "Mercury Recycling in the United States in 2000", "Mercury in traditional medicines: is cinnabar toxicologically similar to common mercurials? Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury (such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs), specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill. It is associated with the planet Mercury; the astrological symbol for the planet is also one of the alchemical symbols for the metal; the Sanskrit word for alchemy is Rasaśāstra. Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl) using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas. The European Union directive calling for compact fluorescent bulbs to be made mandatory by 2012 has encouraged China to re-open cinnabar mines to obtain the mercury required for CFL bulb manufacture. It is approximately 1% of the strength of Earth’s. [105][106], The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves. [133], In the European Union, the directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (see RoHS) bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than 1000 ppm. HgCl2 forms coordination complexes that are typically tetrahedral, e.g. [134] There are restrictions for mercury concentration in packaging (the limit is 100 ppm for sum of mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium and cadmium) and batteries (the limit is 5 ppm). A gas giant is a large planet composed mostly of gases, such as hydrogen and helium, with a relatively small rocky core. These include Millon's base (Hg2N+), the one-dimensional polymer (salts of HgNH+2)n), and "fusible white precipitate" or [Hg(NH3)2]Cl2. Scientists refer to the atmospheres of Saturn and Jupiter as being more “polluted” because they have larger percentages of heavy metals such as methane and ammonia. [29], Beginning in 1558, with the invention of the patio process to extract silver from ore using mercury, mercury became an essential resource in the economy of Spain and its American colonies. For example, Williston Lake in northern British Columbia, created by the damming of the Peace River in 1968, is still sufficiently contaminated with mercury that it is inadvisable to consume fish from the lake. The patio process and later pan amalgamation process continued to create great demand for mercury to treat silver ores until the late 19th century. The "hot Jupiters" found in orbits of a few days are much hotter than the surface of Mercury. One example is Hg2+3(AsF−6)2.[41]. Detailed Synopsis: Mercury began in the same swirling gas cloud as the rest of the planets, moons and other objects in our solar system. Mercury(II) chloride (also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate) was once used to treat syphilis (along with other mercury compounds), although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury, known for his speed and mobility. Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. Compared to other metals, it is a poor conductor of heat, but a fair conductor of electricity. [32], Mercury is extracted by heating cinnabar in a current of air and condensing the vapor. Most astronomers consider it a planet, although there was a proposal a few years ago to reclassify it to a minor planet. [109], Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation. Stable derivatives include the chloride and nitrate. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. [130] However newer data published in 2015 showed that after introduction of the stricter controls mercury declined sharply, indicating that the Clean Air Act had its intended impact. In 2005, China was the top producer of mercury with almost two-thirds global share followed by Kyrgyzstan. Mercury(II) fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms. Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option. Edlich, Richard F.; Rhoads, Samantha K.; Cantrell, Holly S.; Azavedo, Sabrina M. and Newkirk, Anthony T. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, standard conditions for temperature and pressure, membrane cell or diaphragm cell technologies, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements And Inorganic Compounds", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Why is mercury liquid? [40] Mercury(I) chloride, a colorless solid also known as calomel, is really the compound with the formula Hg2Cl2, with the connectivity Cl-Hg-Hg-Cl. [110] The highest mercury concentrations were shown to occur in and around the city of London in association with fine grain muds and high total organic carbon content. Most mercury(I) compounds are diamagnetic and feature the dimeric cation, Hg2+2. [111] These concentrations are far higher than those shown in salt marsh river creek sediments of New Jersey and mangroves of Southern China which exhibit low mercury concentrations of about 0.2 mg/kg.[112][113]. In 2002, the U.S. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers. The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds, such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Environmental dangers have been a concern, particularly in the southern cities of Foshan and Guangzhou, and in Guizhou province in the southwest. Symptoms typically include sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. For this reason, Uranus and Neptune are … Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor. ), Basic Mercury Subsulphate; Turpeth Mineral, Quantities of liquid mercury ranging from 90 to 600 grams (3.2 to 21.2 oz) have been recovered from elite, As an electrically conductive liquid, it was used in, Owing to its acoustic properties, mercury was used as the propagation medium in, Mercury was used for preserving wood, developing. Mercury(II) salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia. The outer shell is only about 300 or 400 miles thick. Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U.S. primarily by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.[49]. "[139], Products containing mercury were banned in Sweden in 2009.[140][141]. [54] Many of the industrial mercury releases of the 20th century came from this process, although modern plants claimed to be safe in this regard. The gas giant planets in our Solar System. [90] In the early 20th century, mercury was administered to children yearly as a laxative and dewormer, and it was used in teething powders for infants. It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease. [115] Mercury present in prey fish accumulates in the predator that consumes them. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some "neon sign" type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps. "Chlorine Online Diagram of mercury cell process", "Liquid-mirror telescope set to give stargazing a new spin", "Laval University Liquid mirrors and adaptive optics group", "Population-Based Inorganic Mercury Biomonitoring and the Identification of Skin Care Products as a Source of Exposure in New York City", "IMERC Fact Sheet: Mercury Use in Batteries", "Did the Mad Hatter have mercury poisoning? Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese, copper and zinc are also resistant in forming amalgams. [53] After about 1985, all new chloralkali production facilities that were built in the United States used membrane cell or diaphragm cell technologies to produce chlorine. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/ haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm / hy-DRAR-jər-əm). [46] Thiomersal is metabolized to ethyl mercury. The coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C, 181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C (per °C). It is a standard in electrochemistry. The price of mercury has been highly volatile over the years and in 2006 was $650 per 76-pound (34.46 kg) flask. [47] Nevertheless, thiomersal has been removed from, or reduced to trace amounts in all U.S. vaccines recommended for children 6 years of age and under, with the exception of inactivated influenza vaccine.[48]. Jupiter and Saturn are the gas giants of the Solar System. Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Emerging out the bottom, the pressure is now intense, and it's starting to get quite warm, and there's nothing but the dark abyss of ever-denser hydrogen gas beneath you. The planet has long puzzled scientists because the core and crust appear to have been pressured into its current compact condition. The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages:[95][96][97], The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in 2000, excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. It started with the same basic chemical composition as the other planets with the same general proportion of iron to rock to gaseous materials. Currently available drugs for acute mercurial poisoning include chelators N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (NAP), British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS), and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry. Mercury does not have any moons. Thiomersal (called Thimerosal in the United States) is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines, though this use is in decline. Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury. [104], A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. This process is called biomagnification. [102] Due to health concerns (see below), toxics use reduction efforts are cutting back or eliminating mercury in such products. The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of 1998. Mercury is a terrestrial planet. Some facial creams contain dangerous levels of mercury. [22][23] By 500 BC mercury was used to make amalgams (Medieval Latin amalgama, "alloy of mercury") with other metals. Mercury is made up of distinct layers, similar to Earth. Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. [125] The convention was signed on 10 October 2013. The term "gas giant" was originally synonymous with "giant planet", but in the 1990s it became known that Uranus and Neptuneare really a distinct class of giant planet, being composed mainly of heavier volatile substances (which are referred to as "ices"). We breathe it and fly planes right through it with no trouble. . In 2008, Norway's Minister of Environment Development Erik Solheim said: "Mercury is among the most dangerous environmental toxins. [9] Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3.59% and its density changes from 13.69 g/cm3 when liquid to 14.184 g/cm3 when solid. Likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Time on Mercury. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and due to its proximity it is not easily seen except during twilight. It reverts to the elements upon heating near 400 °C, as was demonstrated by Joseph Priestley in an early synthesis of pure oxygen. Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link. [135] In July 2007, the European Union also banned mercury in non-electrical measuring devices, such as thermometers and barometers. [59] Last, but not least, the triple point of mercury, −38.8344 °C, is a fixed point used as a temperature standard for the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90).[5]. Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. Case–control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.7–42 μg/m3. induces disproportionation to Hg2+ and elemental mercury. The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. The densities of the gas giants are much less than the densities of the rocky, terrestrial worlds of the solar system. Mercury was used to extract silver from the lucrative mines in New Spain and Peru. All four mercuric halides are known. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury (such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury), by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury. A 2001 study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury (spill kits also use activated carbon and powdered zinc).[11]. Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4–6 times. It started with the same basic chemical composition as the other planets with the same general proportion of iron to rock to gaseous materials. The general belief is that these gas giants formed first as icy and rocky planets similar to the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode[60] and the hanging mercury drop electrode[61] use elemental mercury. Because this configuration strongly resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves similarly to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position. [93] Protocols call for physically merging smaller droplets on hard surfaces, combining them into a single larger pool for easier removal with an eyedropper, or for gently pushing the spill into a disposable container. ", https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/west-moberly-first-nations-concerned-about-mercury-contamination-in-fish-1.3070702, http://a100.gov.bc.ca/appsdata/acat/documents/r54457/CO94394_FinalReport-FIsh_Mercury_Investigation-Az_1531852633378_1851380586.pdf, IMERC Fact Sheet – Mercury Use in Thermostats, "Minamata Disease The History and Measures", "Investigation of Toxic Metals in the Tobacco of Different Iranian Cigarette Brands and Related Health Issues", "Rise and fall of mercury (Hg) pollution in sediment cores of the Thames Estuary, London, UK", "Mercury contamination in surface sediments and sediment cores of the Mersey Estuary, UK", "Status of organic pollutants in surface sediments of Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey, USA", "Organic and metal contamination in surface mangrove sediments of South China", "Mercury concentrations in fish, plankton and water from three Western Atlantic estuaries", "How We Do Things at IISD-ELA: Collecting a fish muscle biopsy", https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/12/the-horrifying-case-of-organic-mercury-poisoning-from-tainted-skin-cream/, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6850a4.htm, "Chronic neurobehavioral effects of elemental mercury in dentists", "UN News — Governments at UN forum agree on legally-binding treaty to curb mercury pollution", "State of New Jersey et al., Petitioners vs. Environmental Protection Agency (Case No. Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. . Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Jupiter. Mercury’s heavy atmospheric pressure condensed the planet’s core and created its crumpled surface with ridges that extend hundreds of miles. Such liquid-mirror telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of 100, but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up. Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata, Japan, now called Minamata disease. [67], A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure (skin care products) to inorganic mercury among New York City residents. Ask for details ; Follow Report by Sonya36 27.06.2019 Log in to add a comment For those of you who may not know (although I'm sure the overwhelming majority already do), a Chthonian planet is a remnant of a gas giant that has been stripped of everything but its core, leaving behind what is more or less a terrestrial planet. [35] Worker health in functioning mines is at high risk. [36], Mercury exists in two oxidation states, I and II. This was before the Sun gathered enough material to start its nuclear furnace and began generating a solar wind. The core is approximately 2,200 to 2,400 miles in diameter. [107] While mercury is a constituent of tobacco smoke,[108] studies have largely failed to discover a significant correlation between smoking and Hg uptake by humans compared to sources such as occupational exposure, fish consumption, and amalgam tooth fillings. Products containing mercury include: auto parts, batteries, fluorescent bulbs, medical products, thermometers, and thermostats. Another mercury compound, merbromin (Mercurochrome), is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries. A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Historically, mercury was used extensively in. Far beneath Jupiter's atmosphere is a gigantic ocean of liquid metallic hydrogen, which would look and behave like mercury except that hydrogen has 60 percent the density of water. The equation for this extraction is. This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment. A complete explanation of mercury's extreme volatility delves deep into the realm of quantum physics, but it can be summarized as follows: mercury has a unique electron configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, and 6s subshells. Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects. The absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc, although both these metals still melt easily and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points. Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range. [6][7], Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate, nitrate, and chloride. [24], Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. In 2008, Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue. A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps, while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy.[44]. Blue mass, a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, bluefin tuna, albacore tuna, and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others. [136], Norway enacted a total ban on the use of mercury in the manufacturing and import/export of mercury products, effective 1 January 2008. [124], 140 countries agreed in the Minamata Convention on Mercury by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to prevent emissions. The purest of these was gold, and mercury was called for in attempts at the transmutation of base (or impure) metals into gold, which was the goal of many alchemists. Mercury(II) salts are a rare example of simple metal complexes that react directly with aromatic rings. Jupiter's composition is mainly hydrogen and helium. If anyone knows how to get this thesis into the hands of someone at NASA or JPL, that is studying Mercury or has a scientific interest in the planets, please contact me. 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