How many times do you hear people say: "Well, it must be safe because the government allows it?" The epidemiological data are, however, insufficient to assess the role of sugars in the occurrence of this pathology'. Stevia is approved for use as a sweetener in parts of Asia and South America, but is banned in most of Europe. Excise duty of 0.05 €/L to all beverages with added sugars, excluding milks or yoghurt drinks. Therefore, the respective evidence is judged as probable'. As described in Table 4, high intake of added sugars can be a risk factor for ill health, especially in the case of intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and galactose, while the main dietary disaccharides are sucrose (consisting of glucose and fructose) and lactose (consisting of glucose and galactose). 103, FDA (2017) U.S. Food and Drug Administration webpage, Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label, FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration webpage for high-intensity sweeteners, Fidler Mis et al (2017) Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents: A Position Paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition, Fitch C. & Keim K.S. Evidence on the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight should be considered when developing food-based dietary guidelines'. This effect, however, is modest and is not accompanied by a clinically significant increase in fasting blood glucose'. We deserve control over our food choice. AFSP1631228A, PHE (2015a) Public Health England, Sugar Reduction: The evidence for action Annex 5: Food supply, PHE (2015b) Public Health England, Sugar Reduction: the evidence for action, PHE (2016) Public Health England, The Eatwell Guide, Helping you eat a healthy, balanced diet, Popkin B.M., Hawkes C. (2016) Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses, Lancet Diabet Endocrinol (2016):4 174-186, Present Knowledge in Nutrition (2012) – 10th edition. EC (2006) Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on nutrition and health claims made on foods; Official Journal of the European Union (2006). 'raise the awareness of the population about the health effects of sugars, from a very early age, through information campaigns; the emphasis should be on nutritional education provided in schools; children should learn to identify the products that are vectors of sugars and to limit them as part of a varied diet'. Aspartame is authorised in the EU for use as a food additive to sweeten a variety of foods and beverages such as drinks, desserts, sweets, chewing gum, yogurt, low calorie and weight control products and as a table-top sweetener. 'Long-term observational studies conducted in children and adults provide inconsistent evidence of an association between low-calorie sweeteners and body weight, as compared to sugar-containing sweeteners'. For those pathologies where weight gain and obesity are established risk factors, in particular for endometrial cancer and breast cancer, the contribution of sugars to excess energy intake must not be overlooked. In the US Legislation, for the purposes of nutrition labelling, 1 cup equals 240 ml, m. For the scope of Annex II, the term added sugars goes beyond the EFSA definition of the term, and 'is additionally considered to include sugars present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates. Moderate evidence indicates that 'higher intake of added sugars, especially in the form of sugar sweetened beverages, is consistently associated with increased risk of […] CHD in adults'. Vending machines dispensing sugary drinks are prohibited in NHS hospitals in Wales. All food and beverages in vending machines on government premises meet nutrition criteria based on, among others, content of sugar. as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA webpage). moderate evidence of a beneficial effect of polyols on dental caries. Introduce policies to limit exposure and marketing of foods and beverages high in added sugars in youth. As in Table 10, many of the implemented policies target consumption of SSBs and limit the availability of sugary foods and beverages in schools. 'the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages should be limited, because they increase the risk of obesity and diabetes'. For blood glucose regulation short- and medium-term intense sweetener consumption 'does not result in the post-prandial elevation of blood glucose or insulin levels in healthy or diabetic subjects'. EU Regulation 1169/2011 on food information to consumers includes mandatory labelling rules related to intense sweeteners and polyols. These policy recommendations can be generally categorised in actions that i) tackle provision of information to the consumers, e.g. Available evidence not sufficient to set an upper limit for intake of added sugars. Sweeteners are not allowed in Keyhole products. The statements or opinions of these institutions, as well as the strength of the supporting evidence, are shown in Table 4. Apart from the consumption of the above, dietary sources include honey and syrups. Use of chewing gum containing polyols, compared to not using a chewing gum,  is beneficial to oral health (mixed and permanent dentition). It is however, necessary to propose an upper limit: 'of 100 g/day for total consumption of sugars, excluding lactose and galactose. 'make it mandatory to provide composition data on added sugars in manufactured products'. The multi-stage levy will be as follows: products with sugar content of 5-8 g/100 ml - 10 € cents/L, and products exceeding 8 g/100 ml – 30 € cents/L. Ann Nutr Metab (2012);60(suppl1):1-58, DGE (2013) German Nutrition Society, 10 guidelines for a wholesome diet, EC (1985) European Commission Scientific Committee for Food, sixteenth series, EC (1989) European Commission Scientific Committee for Food Twenty-first series (1989). 'The direction of the association indicates that greater consumption of sugars sweetened beverages is detrimental to oral health'. All three “first-generation” sweeteners—cyclamate, saccharin, and aspartame—have been linked to negative health effects. 'Smoothies and sweetened milk drinks/products (ie, milk products containing a higher concentration of sugars than unprocessed human, cow or goat milk, such as chocolate milks, condensed milks, fruit yoghurts) […] are an important source of free sugars and their intake should be limited'. Various other voluntary systems include sugars  in their labelling criteria e.g. 'There is possible evidence that there is no association between long-term intake of fructose or sucrose and blood pressure increase'. The problem with GM foods is that there is simply not sufficient research and understanding to inform good public policy. As the European Commission's knowledge and science service, the JRC plays a central role in creating, managing and making sense of collective scientific knowledge for better EU policies. For young children (< 2 yrs. Introduce standards for kindergarten and school meals which include limits on free sugars. 'Evidence from trials conducted in children and adolescents indicates that consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages, as compared with non-calorically sweetened beverages, results in greater weight gain and increases in body mass index, however the evidence is limited to a small number of studies'. Tax applying variable rates on salt, sugar, caffeine content of various ready to eat food categories, including soft drinks (with sugar or sweeteners). 'Legislation restricting marketing aimed at children of foods that are high in fats, sugar and/or salt, less healthy options, junk foods, drinks with alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages rich in sugar (e.g. SCF/CS/ADDS/EDUL/190-final. offering freely available water and limiting the availability of foods and beverages high in sugars content in schools or public environments, reformulating processed foods to reduce sugars content, and iii) implementing financial (dis)incentives such as taxes on products with high sugars content to dissuade consumers from purchasing or consuming them. Latvia: Soft drinks with food additives (incl. 31 Aug 2017 --- EU Member States recently agreed that infusions made from stevia leaves now can be sold in European countries with general food safety rules applying. sweeteners) not allowed, except for lunch. level, and is pending approval by the Member States. Commission of the European Communities, EC (1995) European Commission Scientific Committee for Food, Opinion On Saccharin And Its Sodium, Potassium And Calcium Salts. 13 Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals (And How to Avoid Them), 'Modified' Asks Why Canada and U.S. The Health Star Rating (HSR) is a front-of-pack voluntary labelling scheme. 'Concerning the effect of sugars on adiposity and the distribution of body fat, the data are too limited to reach any conclusion'. In the Philippines, cyclamate was banned until the Philippine Food and Drug Administration lifted the ban in 2013, declaring it safe for consumption. Critics claim the ban with raise prices and may harm malaria control, but advocates of the ban say action must be taken against the pesticides which are known to cause harm to health and nevertheless consistently found in studies of food consumption. The ban effectively prevents all import of chickens from the U.S. into Europe. Various mandatory (via legislation) or voluntary (via industry self-regulation) policies are in place in the EU to restrict food marketing of foods that are high in sugar, salt and fats to children; a major industry self-regulation effort is the EU Pledge. Ban on selling SSB and high sugar foods in schools, restriction policies for workplaces. Based on limited evidence, no significant effect is demonstrated for diets differing in the proportion of sugars on systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Currently (Oct 2017), no sweetener is included in that list. Under Regulation (EU) 1924/2006 (EC 2006) for health and nutrition claims made on foods, the following sugars-related nutrition claims are permitted: In the EU, in general, if a food additive belongs to the category/functional class 'sweetener' it must be designated by the name of that category (i.e., 'sweetener'), followed by its specific name or, if appropriate, E number on the food packaging (EC 2008, EU 2011). The evidence regarding the relevance of sucrose or added sugar, respectively, for the risk of obesity in children, adolescents and adults is insufficient. Based on moderate evidence, no significant association observed between sugars consumption and coronary event incidence. Based on moderate evidence, an association was found between greater sugars-sweetened beverage (SSB) soft-drink consumption and higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, while there was insufficient that included fruit juices. It is a synthetic sweetener 300 times sweeter than sugar, and some studies show it may cause cancer. The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act set standards for the national school lunch and breakfast programmes, which included limits on added sugars in foods and beverages. '…evidence suggests that excessive fructose intake results in increased blood pressure in children and young adult'. The sales description of a table-top sweetener shall include the term ‘…-based table-top sweetener', using the name(s) of the sweetener(s) used in its composition. Foods containing more than 10% added polyols authorised pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 (EC 2008, EU 2011) shall be labelled with the particular 'excessive consumption may produce laxative effects'. For adults: BE, ES, SE for the 19-65 y age group; NL for the 19-34 y age group; DE for the 35-64 y age group, j. Moderate evidence indicates that 'higher intake of added sugars, especially in the form of sugar sweetened beverages, is consistently associated with increased risk of […] stroke […] in adults'. The 2016 Nutrition Facts Label US regulation revision introduces the requirement for declaration of amount of total sugars; in addition added sugars should also be declared, in grams in a serving of a product, establishing a DRV and requiring the percent of daily value declaration. Our research topics give a deeper insight into that support of EU policy, while you can also discover the unique laboratories and facilities where our scientists work. 'Sugars-containing beverages do not promote satiety compared the equivalent amount of sugars in solid form and therefore induce excessive energy intakes'. 'There is possible evidence that there is no association between the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of hypertension. (EU) 1169/2011. Contrary to common opinion, high fructose corn syrup isn't banned in Europe. of age), 'because there is minimal room for nutrient-free calories in the habitual diets', added sugars should be avoided. The association direction indicates that 'greater consumption of SSBs is detrimental to health'. Policies to […] reduce SSBs in post-secondary institutions and worksites to target young adults. Sweetened milks and 100% fruit juice drinks could be freed from the tax, since Estonia will ask permission to give them state aid from the European Commission. Fiscal approaches, using incentives and disincentives should be explored – higher SSB taxes may encourage consumers to reduce consumptions. AT, DK, FI, HU, LT, NO, PL, SE in the 19-65 y age group; DK, SE in the 19-34 y age group; DE, DK, SE in the 35-64 y age group. But the sweetener is credited with potentially positive health effects too. Reduce intake of free sugars throughout life (strong recommendation). Although some evidence exists that high intakes (>20 E%) of sugars may increase serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, the available data are not sufficient to set an upper limit for (added) sugar intake. Criteria not applied to 100% fruit juices. Insufficient evidence regarding an association between intake of monosaccharides and oesophagus, colorectum and breast cancer risk. Implemented policies addressing sugars and sweeteners intake, 4. 'a recommendation focusing only on intakes of 'added' sugars is not justified…the available data cannot be used to distinguish the health effects of sugars naturally present in food from those of added sugars'. But in the intervention studies, daily intakes of fructose above 50 g/d can lead to an increase in fasting and/or post-prandial blood triglycerides'. And while they have conducted more than 40,000 clinical studies on stevia and concluded that it is safe for human use, there is … 'epidemiological studies indicate a hypertriglyceridemia effect of sugars provided in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages, but these data do not show a specific effect, independent of total energy intake'. Although it was originally banned for use as a sweetener in the United States in 1991, the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) approved a purified form called rebaudioside A (Reb A) in 2008. Cyclamate has been banned in 1969 but has yet to be prohibited by Europe and Asia. Not to be confused with the 'no added sugars' nutrient claim under Reg. WHO (2015) World Health Organization, Guideline:Sugars intake for adults and children. For example, Smart Snack standards limited sugar content of snacks or of main course meals to maximum of 35% by weight. EU-28: EU Bans Use of Artificial Sweeteners in Dietetic Bakery Products. Most refer to added or free sugars intake and target specifically sugar-rich products such as SSBs. Set a clear definition of high sugar foods – review and strength the Ofcom nutrient profile model. Banned in some countries - yes . For labelling purposes, the reference intake for sugars of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal) is 90 g/day. Two food safety experts have called for the widely used artificial sweetener, aspartame, to be banned in the UK and questions why it was deemed acceptable in the first place.” New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 'There is possible evidence of a lack of a risk relation between the intake of disaccharides and the development of malignant tumours in the colorectum, breast and pancreas'. This drug, known as rBGH for short, is not allowed in Europe. 'Concerning…blood pressure, in the short- and medium-term intervention studies, deleterious metabolic effects of sugars were observed, in the case of very high consumption and/or consumption associated with an excess energy intake. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in its scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre (EFSA 2010a), refers to added sugars as 'sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch hydrolysates (glucose syrup, high-fructose syrup) and other isolated sugar preparations used as such or added during food preparation and manufacturing' (not including the sugars present in unsweetened fruit juice or honey as added sugars), and total sugars as the sum of added sugars and endogenous sugars present in fruits, vegetables, cereals, as well as lactose in milk products. 'children and adolescents who have high intakes of dietary sugars (specifically from SSBs and added sugars) tend to have higher daily energy intakes compared with similar populations with lower intakes of dietary sugars'. Stevia as a sweetener for human consumption is still forbidden in many countries besides the US. Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) consumption is high in many parts of the world and is considered to significantly contribute to added sugar intake (WHO 2018, CDC website, EC 2018). 'A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of foods and beverages in which sugars have been replaced by intense sweeteners and maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations'. This drug, known as rBGH for short, is not allowed in Europe. In Norway for example, the maximum punishment for importing it is a - never enforced - three months in jail. EU Regulation 1169/2011 on food information to consumers  requires mandatory nutrition declaration for amounts of sugars, under carbohydrates (stating amount of g per 100 g of product), in prepacked foods, EU Regulation 1924/2006 includes rules for nutrition claims made on foods. Products containing limited quantities of sugars may be allowed if authorised by the relevant national health/nutrition authorities (. 'Sugar-containing beverages and foods (SSBs, fruit juices, fruit based smoothies and sweetened milk drinks/products) should be replaced by water or, in the latter case, with unsweetened milk drinks/products with lactose up to the amount naturally present in milk and unsweetened milk products'. In addition, the same regulation states that, in conversion factors for the calculation of energy, carbohydrates (including sugars) have an energy value of 4 kcal/g. Consumers who want a sweet taste without added energy can use non-nutritive sweeteners based on their personal taste preference and intended use. 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