This altered pigmentation is caused by a mutant gene that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which is determined by a white locus. This creature has several notable differences from real tigers, including absent stripes, a leonine tufted tail, and a head terminating in large, pointed jaws. The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offences in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death.[which?] Over the past couple of centuries the White Tiger has become even rarer in the wild due to trophy hunting or cap… Ligers are typically between 10 and 12 ft (3.0 and 3.7 m) in length, and weigh between 800 and 1,000 lb (360 and 450 kg) or more. Tiger population have been estimated using plaster casts of their pugmarks, although this method was criticized as being inaccurate. Its pelage is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white ventral areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual. Subspecies. [38][42] The Bornean tiger was apparently present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but whether it went extinct in prehistoric or recent times has not been resolved. [54] A tiger's coat pattern is still visible when it is shaved. [42][43], Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago. [93] Other vocal communications include grunts, woofs, snarls, miaows, hisses and growls. [95][51] They also prey on other predators, including dogs, leopards, pythons, bears, and crocodiles. A female is only receptive for three to six days. [117] Around the time they are weaned, they start to accompany their mother on territorial walks and are taught how to hunt. Biogeography, Morphology, and Taxonomy", "Confirmation of the presence of the tiger, "Predicted Pleistocene–Holocene rangeshifts of the tiger (, "The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes", "Cat Experts: Ligers and Other Designer Hybrids Pointless and Unethical", "Why the leopard got its spots: relating pattern development to ecology in felids", "Optimizing colour for camouflage and visibility using deep learning: the effects of the environment and the observer's visual system", "The genetics of tiger pelage color variations", "Melanistic tigers exhibited in Nandankanan zoo", "Albinism and Partial Albinism in Tigers", "Accumulation of Deleterious Mutations Due to Inbreeding in Tiger Population", "A new conservation policy needed for reintroduction of Bengal tiger-white", "Large Carnivores and the Consequences of Habitat Insularization: ecology and conservation of Tigers in Indonesia and Bangladesh", "Hierarchical spatial analysis of Amur tiger relationships to habitat and prey", "The Technical Assessment: Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–2015", "Reproductive parameters of wild female Amur (Siberian) tigers (, 10.1644/1545-1542(2003)084<0288:RPOWFA>2.0.CO;2, "First photographic record of tiger presence at higher elevations of the Mishmi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot, Arunachal Pradesh, India", "Documenting the demise of tiger and leopard, and the status of other carnivores and prey, in Lao PDR's most prized protected area: Nam Et-Phou Louey", "Population Status of a Cryptic Top Predator: An Island-Wide Assessment of Tigers in Sumatran Rainforests". Although almost exclusively carnivorous, tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fibre such as fruit of the slow match tree. In Ranthambore, a male Bengal tiger raised and defended two orphaned female cubs after their mother had died of illness. [18] The tiger has fairly stout teeth; its somewhat curved canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of up to 90 mm (3.5 in). [51] For example, the Champawat Tiger, a tigress found in Nepal and then India, had two broken canines. [127][128][129] Some estimates suggest that there are fewer than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals. In the years of 1990 through 1992, 27 million products with tiger derivatives were found. Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. In Rudyard Kipling's 1894 The Jungle Book, the tiger, Shere Khan, is the mortal enemy of the human protagonist, Mowgli. Both snow white and golden tigers are homozygous for CORIN gene mutations. [38], In the Philippine island of Palawan, two articulated phalanx bones were found amidst an assemblage of other animal bones and stone tools in Ille Cave near the village of New Ibajay. It is not an albino, as the black pigments are scarcely affected. [116], The tiger mates all year round, but most cubs are born between March and June, with a second peak in September. [51] It is a strong swimmer and often bathes in ponds, lakes and rivers, thus keeping cool in the heat of the day. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference . [53] The orangish colour may also aid in camouflage as the tiger's prey are dichromats, and thus may perceive the cat as green and blended in with the vegetation. Panthera tigris tigris. Taking its name from that of the world's largest cat species, Panthera tigris, the new Tigris attraction is being constructed in the Stanleyville area of the theme park adjacent to Jungala, which houses the park's endangered Bengal tigers. [24] The potential tiger range during the late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data. The tiger (Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family; the largest of the four Big Cats in the genus Panthera. We studied the diet of the Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, by identifying 109 prey items from 85 tiger scats. Territory disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation rather than outright aggression.   Results support six monophyletic tiger clades corresponding with the living subspecies and indicate that the most recent common ancestor lived about 110,000 years ago. [47] Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent species. Chital (Axis axis) was the major prey with a frequency of 45% of the Tigers’ diet. [86] The most aggressive disputes tend to occur between two males when a female is in oestrus, and sometimes results in the death of one of the males. In southern India the god Ayyappan was associated with a tiger. Horizontal leaps of up to 10 m (33 ft) have been reported, although leaps of around half this distance are more typical. Das C. S. 2012. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for preyand rearing of its offspring. [82] In 1986 in the Sundarbans, since tigers almost always attack from the rear, masks with human faces were worn on the back of the head, on the theory that tigers usually do not attack if seen by their prey. [83] Radio-collared tigers in Chitwan National Park started dispersing from their natal areas earliest at the age of 19 months. [167] Early writings tend to describe man-eating tigers as cowardly because of their ambush tactics. Tony the Tiger is a famous mascot for Kellogg's breakfast cereal Frosted Flakes, known for its catchphrase "They're Gr-r-reat!". [12], Results of craniological analysis of 111 tiger skulls from Southeast Asian range countries indicate that Sumatran tiger skulls differ from Indochinese and Javan tiger skulls, whereas Bali tiger skulls are similar in size to Javan tiger skulls. Panthera tigris conservation: a population density estimate in Peninsular Malaysia. [165] Occasionally tigers come to view people as prey. Individuals sharing the same area are aware of each other's movements and activities. [42][70] Tiger populations thrive where populations of wild cervids, bovids and suids are stable. [151], The Wildlife Conservation Society and Panthera Corporation formed the collaboration Tigers Forever, with field sites including the world's largest tiger reserve, the 21,756 km2 (8,400 sq mi) Hukaung Valley in Myanmar. El tigre de Bengala ( Panthera tigris tigris ), también conocido como tigre de Bengala real o tigre indio, es una subespecie de tigre que habita en la India, Nepal, Bangladés, Bután, Birmania y Tíbet. [46] Because the male tiger does not pass on a growth-promoting gene and the lioness passes on a growth inhibiting gene, tigons are around the same size as their parents. It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and wild boar. Panthera tigris tigris is the native tiger subspecies of mainland Asia comprising the following tiger populations:[1], A whole-genome sequencing analysis of 32 tiger specimens supported six monophyletic tiger clades and indicated that the most recent common ancestor lived about 110,000 years ago. [181] The Tungusic peoples considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity and often referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". On the Indian subcontinent, it inhabits mainly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests and the swamp forests of the Sundarbans. Tigers have less impact on ungulate populations than do wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers. [40][41], Many people in China and other parts of Asia have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs. by ; Sharma, G., Kamalakannan, M. and Venkataraman, K. 2014. This is not due to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and hair follicles embedded in the skin, similar to human beards (colloquially five o'clock shadow), and is in common with other big cats. The Siberian tiger is a population of the Panthera tigris tigris subspecies that is native to the Russian Far East, Northeast China, and possibly North Korea. They are also ranked among the biggest cats that have ever existed reaching weights of more than 300 kg (660 lb). [74] In the Eastern Himalayas, tigers were documented in temperate forest up to an elevation of 4,200 m (13,800 ft) in Bhutan and of 3,630 m (11,910 ft) in the Mishmi Hills. The genes responsible for white colouration are represented by 0.001% of the population. [46] Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to climate change, tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans. [82], Tiger parts are commonly used as amulets in South and Southeast Asia. If these are not sufficient, the conflicts may turn violent; tigers may kill competitors as leopards, dholes, striped hyenas, wolves, bears, pythons, and crocodiles on occasion. [82], Young female tigers establish their first territories close to their mother's. In either sex, the tail represents about 0.6 to 1.1 m (24 to 43 in) of the total length. Poaching again became a problem in the 1990s, when the economy of Russia collapsed. [22] Chuffing—soft, low-frequency snorting similar to purring in smaller cats—is heard in more friendly situations. Es la subespecie más numerosa y conocida de tigre, y se encuentra en una gran variedad de hábitats, incluyendo sabanas y bosques tropicales y subtropicales. It was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. Resident adults of either sex generally confine their movements to their home ranges, within which they satisfy their needs and those of their growing cubs. Although predators typically avoid one another, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor is encountered, displays of aggression are common. Other physical defects include cleft palate and scoliosis. [138] India also reintroduced tigers to the Sariska Tiger Reserve[139] and by 2009 it was claimed that poaching had been effectively countered at Ranthambore National Park. [82] During the 1980s, a tiger was observed frequently hunting prey through deep lake water in Ranthambhore National Park. The White Tiger (Chinese: 白虎; pinyin: Bái Hǔ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. Both males and females show a flehmen response, a characteristic grimace, when sniffing urine markings, but flehmen is more often associated with males detecting the markings made by tigresses in oestrus. [195] The Esso (Exxon) brand of petrol was advertised from 1959 onwards with the slogan 'put a tiger in your tank', and a tiger mascot; more than 2.5 million synthetic tiger tails were sold to motorists, who tied them to their petrol tank caps.[196]. Young males seeking to establish themselves thereby comprise the highest mortality rate (30–35% per year) amongst adult tigers. La tigre reale del Bengala ( Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758), conosciuta anche come tigre del Bengala, è la più comune e diffusa sottospecie di tigre tuttora esistente. Most man-eating tigers are old, missing teeth, and unable to capture their preferred prey. [148], In 1994, the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra. "Chemical Characterization of Territorial Marking Fluid of Male Bengal Tiger, Tiger dad: Rare family portrait of Amur tigers the first-ever to include an adult male, "T-25 Dollar Dominant Male Tiger in Ranthambore National Park", "Food habits and prey selection of tiger and leopard in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India", "Trouble for rhino from poacher and Bengal tiger", "Tiger kills elephant at Eravikulam park", "Tiger kills adult rhino in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve", "Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures", 10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2852:EOTDII]2.0.CO;2, "Sympatric Tiger and Leopard: How two big cats coexist in the same area", Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. È tradizionalmente considerata come la seconda sottospecie per dimensioni dopo la tigre siberiana, ma spesso esemplari che vivono nel Bengala settentrionale sono più grandi delle tigri … Tigers are also victims of human–wildlife conflict, in particular in range countries with a high human population density. There are two different roars: the "true" roar is made using the hyoid apparatus and forced through an open mouth as it progressively closes, and the shorter, harsher "coughing" roar is made with the mouth open and teeth exposed. [89] Stephen Mills described a social feeding event in Ranthambhore National Park: A dominant tigress they called Padmini killed a 250 kg (550 lb) male nilgai – a very large antelope. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. [18][104], With smaller prey, such as monkeys and hares, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery. The overlap between the female and her mother's territory reduces with time. The origin may have been the Persian word tigra meaning 'pointed or sharp', and the Avestan word tigrhi 'arrow', perhaps referring to the speed of the tiger's leap, although these words are not known to have any meanings associated with tigers. [50] They make short ventures with their mother, although they do not travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older. [86], To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying urine[87][88] and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat and marking trees or the ground with their claws. How to say panthera tigris in English? The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were possibly separated during interglacial periods. Though tiger hunting was prohibited in 1977, the population continued to decline and is considered extinct in southern China since 2001. [192] Jim Corbett's 1944 Man-Eaters of Kumaon tells ten true stories of his tiger-hunting exploits in what is now the northern Uttarakhand region of India. It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and wild boar. The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger as "Hu Lin," the king. Tigers in this region fed upon eight different mammal species. Panthera tigris ( Linnaeus, 1758) Type locality: “Asia”, restricted to “Bengal, India” by Thomas (1911). Although the range of the White Tiger is historically very large, these animals are incredibly rare as their colouration is dependent on a defective, recessive gene that is passed on from their parents. To preserve this recessive trait, only a few white individuals were used in captive breeding, which led to a high degree of inbreeding. ",, Species endangered by agricultural development, Species endangered by deliberate extirpation efforts, Species endangered by human consumption for medicinal or magical purposes, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2016, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Tiger's historical range in about 1850 (pale yellow), excluding that of the. [4] [178] Many Siberian tigers in zoos today are actually the result of crosses with Bengal tigers. [89] By this method, gaurs and water buffaloes weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large on its own. In the Asian black market, a tiger penis can be worth the equivalent of around $300 U.S. dollars. [194], Tigers are also mascots for various sports teams around the world. Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) – Tiger. Abstract. In China and Myanmar, breeding populations appear to rely on immigration from neighbouring countries while its status in the Korean Peninsula is unknown. Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and colouration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations. In 2006 the 14th Dalai Lama was persuaded to take up the issue. In May 2015, Amur tigers were photographed by camera traps in the Sikhote-Alin Bioshpere Reserve. As a result, anti-poaching controls were put in place by the Soviet Union and a network of protected zones (zapovedniks) were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. The geographic origin of the Panthera is most likely northern Central Asia or the Holarctic region. [118] [197] The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the Pandyan emblem fish and the Chera emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. [7], In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. [169] The Sundarbans area had 129 human deaths from tigers from 1969 to 1971. [82] Attacks are occasionally provoked, as tigers lash out after being injured while they themselves are hunted. Temminck's description was based on an unspecified number of tiger skins with long hairs and dense coats that were traded between Korea and Japan. 3. The tiger once ranged widely from the Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, and in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. [82], In the 1990s, a new approach to tiger conservation was developed: Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs), which are blocks of habitat that have the potential to host tiger populations in 15 habitat types within five bioregions. [142] The competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters to tolerate the big cats. In the 10 years prior to that period, about 100 attacks per year in the Sundarbans, with a high of around 430 in some years of the 1960s. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early 19th and 20th centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India. [175] In 2011, 468 facilities in the USA kept 2,884 tigers. However, tigers cause more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal. Such attacks are most common in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced their wild prey. [11] It also reflects the classification used by the Cat Classification Task Force in 2017: A study published in 2018 was based on 32 tiger specimens using the whole-genome sequencing approach for analysis. [22], In the wild, tigers mostly feed on large and medium-sized mammals, particularly ungulates weighing 60–250 kg (130–550 lb). Panthera’s Tigers Forever Program is working to increase tiger numbers by at least 50% over a ten year period at key sites in India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, and Nepal. [16] 2. They were smaller than mainland tiger fossils, possibly due to insular dwarfism. [153] More recent techniques include the use of camera traps and studies of DNA from tiger scat, while radio-collaring has been used to track tigers in the wild. The pupils are circular with yellow irises. Other reserves were in the Western Ghats in India, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, the Russian Far East covering in total about 260,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi). The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". [80], A dominant cub emerges in most litters, usually a male. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own. [190], In William Blake's poem in his Songs of Experience (1794), titled "The Tyger", the tiger is a menacing and fearful animal. The nominate subspecies P. t. tigris constitutes two clades:[14], One conservation specialist welcomed this proposal as it would make captive breeding programmes and future rewilding of zoo-born tigers easier. The tiger–snow leopard lineage dispersed in Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Bengal tigers, P. t. tigris, are found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and China. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks. It was proposed as a distinct subspecies on the basis of. Major reasons for population decline are habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. [51][52] The tiger is one of only a few striped cat species; it is not known why spotted patterns and rosettes are the more common camouflage pattern among felids. The trade in tiger skins peaked in the 1960s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. tigris. Breeding hybrids is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation. They are also considered one of the charismatic megafauna, and are used as the face of conservation campaigns worldwide. Records in Central Asia indicate that it occurred foremost in Tugay riverine forests along the Atrek, Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Hari, Chu and Ili Rivers and their tributaries. [18] Litters consist of two or three cubs, rarely as many as six. [177] Genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from fourteen countries and regions showed that forty-nine animals belonged distinctly to five subspecies; fifty-two animals had mixed subspecies origins. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. The pelts were used in clothing, tiger-skin chuba being worn as fashion. It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today. In Chinese art, the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon – the two representing matter and spirit respectively. A Checklist of Mammals of India with their distribution and conservation status. One geneticist was sceptical of this study and maintained that the currently recognised nine subspecies can be distinguished genetically.[15]. The size difference between them is proportionally greater in the large tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.7 times more than females. Every so often, a Bengal tiger is born with an all-white coat with brown to black stripes. [80] It does not often climb trees but cases have been recorded. [citation needed], In China, tigers became the target of large-scale 'anti-pest' campaigns in the early 1950s, where suitable habitats were fragmented following deforestation and resettlement of people to rural areas, who hunted tigers and prey species. [71] Today their only healthy populations remain in Thailand, which at last count had about 189 wild tigers. Moaning can be heard 400 m (1,300 ft) away. Catalogue of Life. [44], The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013. [68][73] He assumed they originated in the, Hilzheimer's description was based on five tiger skulls purchased in. The oldest recorded captive tiger lived for 26 years. Illiger's description was not based on a particular specimen, but he only assumed that tigers in the Caspian area differ from those elsewhere. [180], In Chinese myth and culture, the tiger is one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. [31], The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera species lion, leopard and jaguar. [13], In 2015, morphological, ecological, and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach. Panthera tigris tigris in Mammal Species of the World. [162], Wild tigers that have had no prior contact with humans actively avoid interactions with humans. They open their eyes when they are six to 14 days old. [152], Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger subspecies native to the Indian subcontinent.It lives in Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh and northern India.It is the National animal of both India and Bangladesh. [50] Young females reach sexual maturity at three to four years, whereas males at four to five years. [62] 2004. a southern clade composed of all other mainland populations. The Sumatran Tiger Project (STP) was initiated in June 1995 in and around the Way Kambas National Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations. The cubs remained under his care, he supplied them with food, protected them from his rival and sister, and apparently also trained them. 4. [125], Major threats to the tiger include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching for fur and body parts, which have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. None of them crossed open cultivated areas that were more than 10 km (6.2 mi) wide, but moved through forested habitat. Females in oestrus will signal their availability by scent marking more frequently and increasing their vocalisations.[51]. A more realistic version of the tiger entered the heraldic armory through the British Empire's expansion into Asia, and is referred to as the Bengal tiger to distinguish it from its older counterpart. It once ranged throughout the Korean Peninsula, north China, and eastern Mongolia. The Panthera lineage is a monophyletic clade of felids, supported by both morphological and molecular evidence. Scent markings of this type allow an individual to pick up information on another's identity, sex and reproductive status. [22] The tigers of the Sunda islands are smaller and less heavy than tigers in mainland Asia, rarely exceeding 142 kg (313 lb) in weight. Panthera tigris tigris Mammal Species of the World (v3, 2005) link : Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758 ITIS link : Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) ( mirror ) Inbreeding depression is the main reason for many health problems of captive white tigers, including strabismus, stillbirth, deformities and premature death. [60], The white tiger lacks pheomelanin (which creates the orange colour), and has dark sepia-brown stripes and blue eyes. The snow white tiger is a morph with extremely faint stripes and a pale reddish-brown ringed tail. [1] The global wild tiger population was estimated by the World Wide Fund for Nature at 3,200 in 2011 and 3,890 in 2015—Vox reported that this was the first increase in a century. Like other Panthera, tigers roar, particularly in aggressive situations, during the mating season or when making a kill. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58, 205-214. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely P. t. tigris comprising the Bengal, Malayan, Indochinese, South Chinese, Siberian and Caspian tiger populations, and P. t. sondaica comprising the Javan, Bali and Sumatran tiger populations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West (Chinese: 西方白虎), and it represents the west and the autumn season. [90] Females lactate for five to six months. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, with most of the populations living in small pockets isolated from each other.